referencing Lillian’s Word documents
European palaces within Ruins of Yuanmingyuan, Beijing: photos by Druh Scoff on Flickr (view)
The Garden of Perfect Brightness—3 Destruction, Looting, and Me


Baker, Malcolm and Brenda Richardson, eds. A Grand Design: The Art of the Victoria and Albert Museum. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997
Geramie R. Barmé, “A Garden of Perfect Brightness, A Life in Ruins,” East Asian History 11 (1996), 111-58.

Beurdeley, Cecile and Michel. Giuseppi Castiglione: A Jesuit Painter at the Court of the Chinese Emperor. Transl. Michael Bullock. Rutland, Vt., and Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1971.
Anne-Marie Broudehoux, “Selling the Past: Nationalism and the Commodification of History at Yuanmingyuan,” Chap 3 in The Making and Selling of Post-Mao Beijing. Routledge, 2004.

China: The Three Emperors, 1662-1795.  Ed. by Evelyn S. Rawski and Jessica Rawson. London: Royal Academy of the Arts, 2005.

Chiu, Che Bing. Yuanming Yuan: le Jardin de la Clarté Parfaite. Bescançon: Editions de l’Imprimeur,  2000.

Danby, Hope. The Garden of Perfect Brightness: The History of the Yuan Ming Yuan and of the Emperors Who Lived There. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1950.

The Face of China: As Seen by Photographers and Travelers, 1860-1912. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1978. (L. Carrington Goodrich and Nigel Cameron, contributers)  

The Forbidden City [De Verboden Stad]: Court Culture of the Chinese Emperors, 1644-1911. Rotterdam: Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, 1990.

Harris, David. Of Battle and Beauty: Felice Beato’s Photographs of China. Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 1999.

Hevia, James L. English Lessons: The Pedagogy of Imperialism in Nineteenth-Century China. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2003.

The Imperial Sale – Yuanmingyuan . Catalog. Christie’s Hong Kong, April 30, 2000.

Kangxi, Empereur de Chine, 1662-1722:  La Cité interdite à Versailles, Musée national du chateau de Versailles, 27 janvier-9 mai 2004.  Réunion des musées nationaux, Paris 2004.

Landry-Deron, Isabelle. “Portraits croisés Kangxi et Louis XIV,” in Kangxi, Empereur de Chine, 1662-1722:  La Cité interdite à Versailles, Musée national du chateau de Versailles, 27 janvier-9 mai 2004.  Réunion des musées nationaux, Paris 2004. Pp. 59-63.
Haiyan Lee, “The Ruins of Yuanmingyuan: Or, How to Enjoy a National Wound,” Modern China 35.2 (March 2009), 155-190.

Li, Lillian M., Alison J. Dray-Novey, and Haili Kong. Beijing: From Imperial Capital to Olympic City. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Malone, Carroll Brown. History of the Summer Palaces under the Ch’ing Dynasty. Urbana: University of Illinois, 1934.

James A. Millward.  "A Uyghur Muslim in Qianlong's Court: The Meanings of the Fragrant Concubine." Journal of Asian Studies 53:2 (May 1994).

Le Musée chinois de l'impératrice Eugénie, catalog, Musée national du Château de Fontainebleau.  Eds., Colombe Samoyault-Verlet, Jean-Paul Desroches, Gilles Beguin, Albert Le Bonheuf, pub: Réunion des musées nationaux, Paris, 1994.

Naquin, Susan. “Giuseppe Castiglione/Lang Shining: A Review Essay. T’oung Pao 95 (2009), 393-412.

Pirazzoli-T’Serstevens, Michèle. Giuseppe Castiglione, 1688-1766: Peintre et architecte à la cour de Chine. Paris: Thalia, 2007

Qianlong yupin Yuanmingyuan 乾隆御品圓明園 (Qianlong’s Imperial treasure Yuanmingyuan), ed. by Guo Daiheng 郭黛姮. Hangzhou: Zhejiang guji chubanshe, 2007.

Sirén, Osvald. Gardens of China. New York: The Ronald Press, 1949.

Strassberg, Richard E., “War and Peace: Four Intercultural Landscapes,” in  China on Paper: European and Chinese Works from the Late Sixteenth to the Early Nineteenth Century, ed by Marcia Reed and Paola Demattè (Los Angeles: The Getty Research Institute, 2007),  pp. 88-137

Thiriez, Régine. Barbarian Lenses: Western Photographers of the Qianlong Emperor’s European Palaces. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach, 1998.

Thomas, Greg M. “The Looting of Yuanming and the Translation of Chinese Art in Europe,” Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide: A Journal of Nineteenth-Century Visual Culture, Vol 7, Issue 2, Autumn 2008.

Wong, Young-tsu. A Paradise Lost: The Imperial Garden Yuanming Yuan. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2001.

Worshiping the Ancestors: Chinese Commemorative Portraits. Ed by Jan Stuart and Evelyn S. Rawski. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 2001.

Yuanmingyuan Changchunyuan Hangjingtang yizhi fajue baogao 圓明園長春園含經堂遺址發掘報告 (Report on the excavation of the Hangjingtang ruins at the Changchungyuan of the Yuanmingyuan) . Beijing wenwu yanjiuso, ed. (2006).

Yuanmingyuan:Yige diguo de beijing 圓明園: 一个帝国的背景 (Yuanmingyuan: background of an empire). By Jin Tiemu 金铁木. Beijing: Xin shijie chubanshe, 2006.

Yuanmingyuan liusan wenwu 圆明园流散文物. Ed. Yuanmingyuan guanlihu. Beijing: Wenwu chubanshe, 2007.

Yuanshi de huihuang: Yuanmingyuan jianzhu yuanlin yanjiu yu baohu 远逝的辉煌:圆明园建筑园林研究与保护( Brilliance of the distant past: Research and protection of Yuanmingyuan’s architecture and gardens.  Ed. by Guo Daiheng郭黛姮. Shanghai: Shanghai keji jishu chubanshe, 2009.


The 20 Engravings
China on Paper: European and Chinese Works from the Late Sixteenth to the Early Nineteenth Century. Exhibition, November 6, 2007–February 10, 2008 at the Getty Center. View

A Suite of Twenty Engravings of the Yuan Ming-Yuan Summer Palaces and Gardens of the Chinese Emperor Ch'ien Lung, New York Public Library (View)

European Palaces at the Garden of Perfect Brightness, engraver (printmaker): Yi Lantai (Chinese, active 1749-1786), MIT Department of Architecture; all 20 engravings. View


China and Europe Intertwined: A New View of the European Sector of the Chang Chun Yuan (View)

The jing of line-method: a perspective garden in the Garden of Round Brightness, PhD dissertation by Hui Zou, McGill School of Architecture, (c) 2005. This dissertation examines the history of the Western Multistoried-Buildings garden (Xiyang Lou) located within the Chinese imperial Garden of Round Brightness (Yuanming yuan) of the Qing dynasty. (View)

Remembering Imperialism in China: British and Chinese Representations of the Destruction of Yuan Ming Yuan, Bachelor’s thesis by Matthew James Van Duyn, Wesleyan, Class of 2009. View

Wikipedia: Xiyang Lou (Chinese: 西洋楼; pinyin: XīyángLóu; literally "Western mansion(s)"), are ruins of 18th-century European-style imperial buildings. View

Press Surrounding Yuanmingyuan Objects on the Contemporary Market

History of Gardens in East Asia by François Louis, Bard Graduate Center
Website includes Online Resources and Bibliography for the Yuanmingyuan. View

YMY 3: Destruction, Looting, and Memory