Chapter 2
1. Alfred W. McCoy, Policing America’s Empire: The United States, the Philippines, and the Rise of the Surveillance State (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009), p. 73.

2. Karl Irving Faust, Campaigning in the Philippines (San Francisco: Hicks-Judd, 1899), p. 133, p. 144.

Chapter 3
1. Original citation for the poem: “The White Man's Burden,” McClure’s Magazine 12 (February 1899), pp. 290-291.

2. Original citation for the speech: Theodore Roosevelt, “The Strenuous Life,” in The Strenuous Life: Essays and Addresses (New York: The Century Co., 1901), pp. 1-21.

Chapter 4
1. To come

2. To come

3. To come

4. David L. Fritz, “Before the ‘Howling Wilderness’: The Military Career of Jacob Hurd Smith,” Military Affairs 43 (December 1979), pp. 186-190.

5. Moorfield Storey, The Moro Massacre (Boston: Anti-Imperialist League, [1906]).

Further Reading:

The Philippine-American War

Gowing, Peter G. Mandate in Moroland: The American Government of Muslim Filipinos, 1899-1920 (Quezon City: Philippine Center for Advanced Studies, 1977).

Karnow, Stanley. In Our Image: America’s Empire in the Philippines (New York: Random House, 1989).

Kramer, Paul A. The Blood of Government: Race, Empire, the United States, and the Philippines (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006).

________. “The Water Cure.” The New Yorker, February 25, 2008, pp. 38-43.

Linn, Brian McAllister. The Philppine War, 1898-1902 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2000).

McCoy, Alfred W. Policing America’s Empire: The United States, the Philippines, and the Rise of the Surveillance State (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2009).

Miller, Stuart Creighton. “Benevolent Assimilation”: The American Conquest of the Philippines, 1899-1902 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982).

Ward, Kyle Roy. In the Shadow of Glory: The Thirteenth Minnesota in the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars, 1898-1899 (St. Cloud: North Star Press of St. Cloud, 2000).

Welch, Jr., Richard E. “American Atrocities in the Philippines: The Indictment and the Reponse.” Pacific Historical Review 43 (May 1974), pp. 233-253.

Zwick, Jim, editor. Mark Twain’s Weapons of Satire: Anti-Imperialist Writings on the Philippine-American War (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1992).

Photography and Visual Culture in the Philippines

Best, Jonathan. Philippine Picture Post Cards, 1900-1920 (Manila: Bookmark, 1994).

Brody, David. Visualizing American Empire: Orientalism and Imperialism in the Philippines (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010).

De la Cruz, Enrique B. and Pearlie Rose Baluyut, editors. Confrontations, Crossings, and Convergence: Photographs of the Philippines and the United States, 1898-1998 (Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1998).

Darrah, William Culp. Stereo Views: A History of Stereographs in America and Their Collection (Gettsyburg, Pa.: Times and News Pub. Co., 1964).

Fowles, Jib. “Stereography and the Standardization of Vision.” Journal of American Culture 17 (Summer 1994), pp. 89-93.

Ignacio, Abe, et al. The Forbidden Book: The Philippine-American War in Political Cartoons (Manila: T’Boli Publishing, 2004).

McCoy, Alfred and Alfredo Roces. Philippine Cartoons: Political Caricature of the American Era, 1900-1941 (Quezon City: Vera-Reyes, 1985).

Perez, Christian. Catalogue of Philippine Stereoviews (Quezon City: WE-PRINT Graphics & Publication Services, 2002).

Rafael, Vicente L. White Love and Other Events in Filipino History (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2000).

Vergara, Benito M. Displaying Filipinos: Photography and Colonialism in Early 20th Century Philippines (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1995).

Wexler, Laura. Tender Violence: Domestic Visions in an Age of U.S. Imperialism (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000).

Illustrated books from the Philippene-American War

Boyce, William Dickson. The Philippine Islands (Chicago: Rand-McNally, [1914]).

Brown, Arthur Judson. The New Era in the Philippines (New York: F.H. Revell Co., [1903]).

Bryan, William S., editor. Our Islands and Their People as Seen with Camera and Pencil (New York: N.D. Thompson Pub. Co., 1899).[not available in full text online]

Church, A.M. Picturesque Cuba, Porto Rico, Hawaii, Philippines with Views of the American Army and Navy (Springfield, Ohio: Mast, Crowell & Kirkpatrick, 1899).

Condict, Alice Byram. Old Glory and the Gospel in the Philippines: Notes Gathered during Professional and Missionary Work (Chicago: Fleming H. Revell, 1901).

Devins, John B. An Observer in the Philippines, or, Life in Our New Possessions (New York: American Tract Society, 1905).

Everett, Marshall, editor. Exciting Experiences in Our Wars with Spain, and the Filipinos (Chicago: Book Publishers Union, 1899).

Faust, Karl Irving. Campaigning in the Philippines (San Francisco: Hicks-Judd Co., 1899).

Folkmar, Daniel. Album of Philippine Types: Found in Bilibid Prison in 1903: Christians and Moros (Including a Few Non-Christians) (Manila: Bureau of Public Printing, 1904).

Givens, J.D. Scenes Taken in the Philippines, China, Japan, and on the Pacific, Relating to Soldiers (San Francisco: Hicks-Judd Co., 1912).

Halstead, Murat. The Story of the Philippines, The El Dorado of the Orient (New York: Western W. Wilson, 1898).

Hamm, Margherita Arlina. America’s New Possessions and Spheres of Influence (Chicago: F.Tennyson Neely, 1899).

Hannaford, Ebener. History and Description of the Picturesque Philippines (Springfield, Ohio: Crowell & Kirkpatrick, 1900).

Mawson, Harry P., compiler. Leslie’s Official History of the Spanish-American War (Washington: n.p., 1899). [not available in full text online]

Millett, Francis David. The Expedition to the Philippines (New York: Harper and Bros., 1899).

Neely, Frank Tennyson. Fighting in the Philippines: Authentic Original Photographs (Chicago: F.T. Neely, 1899).

________. Neely’s Color Photos of America’s New Possessions (Chicago: Frank T. Neely, 1899).

________. Neely’s Panorama of Our New Possessions (Chicago: F. Tennyson Neely, 1898).

________. A Wonderful Reproduction of Living Scenes in Natural Color Photos of America’s New Possessions (Chicago: International View Co., 1901). [not available in full text online]

Rockett, Perley Fremont. Our Boys in the Philippines: A Pictorial History of the War (San Francisco: P.F. Rockett, 1899).

Stevens, Joseph Earle. Yesterdays in the Philippines (New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1898).

Stratemeyer, Edward. The Campaign of the Jungle, or, Under Lawton through Luzon (Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1900).

Stuntz, Homer C. The Philippines and the Far East (New York: Eaton and Mains, 1904).

U.S. Army. 8th Corps. Souvenir of the 8th Army Corps Philippine Expedition: A Pictorial History of the Philippine Campaign (Manila: Press of Freedom Pub. Co., 1899).

Wilcox, Marrion, editor. Harper’s History of the War in the Philippines (New York: Harper, 1900).

Younghusband, Major G.J. The Philippines and Round About (New York: Macmillan, 1899).


Southeast Asia Visions: A Collection of Historic Travel Narratives
Cornell University Libraries

Philippine-American War, 1899-1902
Arnaldo Dumindin

The Motion Picture Camera Goes to War
Library of Congress

Stereographs during the Fil-American War
Pinoy Kollector

The United States and Its Territories, 1870-1925: The Age of Imperialism
University of Michigan Libraries

SouthEast Asian Images and Texts
University of Wisconsin Digital Collections


“Photography & Power in the Colonial Philippines l” was developed by Visualizing Cultures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and presented on MIT OpenCourseWare.

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