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Dower, John W. War Without Mercy: Race & Power In the Pacific War (Pantheon Books, Random House, 1986).

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Harris, David. Of Battle and beauty: Felice Beato's Photographs of China (Santa Barbara, CA: Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 1999).

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Simner, Mark. The Lion and the Dragon: Britain's Opium Wars with China 1839–1860 (Fonthill Media, 2019). Kindle Edition.

Warren, Maureen. “Romanticizing the Uncanny,” from Nineteenth-Century Photographs and Architecture: Documenting History, Charting Progress, and Exploring the World by Micheline Nilsen (Ashgate, 2013)

Wong, J. Y. Deadly Dreams: Opium and the Arrow War in China (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

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“The Second Opium War” was developed by Visualizing Cultures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in collaboration with Peter C. Perdue and Ellen Sebring (co-authors, essay) and presented on MIT OpenCourseWare.

MIT Visualizing Cultures:
John W. Dower
Project Director
Emeritus Professor of History

Shigeru Miyagawa
Project Director
Professor of Linguistics
Kochi Prefecture-John Manjiro Professor of Japanese Language and Culture

Ellen Sebring
Creative Director

Co-author, essay

Scott Shunk
Program Director

Andrew Burstein
Media designer

In collaboration with:
Peter C. Perdue
Department of History
Yale University

Co-author, essay


Contributing Archives

Visualizing Cultures is indebted to the following sources for images
presented in this unit.
Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University
British Library
British Museum
Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection, Brown University Library
Hong Kong Museum of Art
National Maritime Museum, London
Peobody Essex Museum
Sterling Memorial Library, Yale University
Victoria And Albert Museum, London
Wikimedia Commons
Wellcome Images, London

Funding for this website was provided by:
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MIT Visualizing Cultures received generous funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, Henry Luce Foundation, the Getty Foundation, Japan Foundation's Council for Global Partnership, National Endowment for the Humanities, and MIT's d'Arbeloff Fund for Innovation in Undergraduate Education and MIT Microsoft-funded iCampus project.


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