Flath, J. A. The Cult of Happiness: Nianhua, Art, and History in Rural North China (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004).

Hevia, J. L. English Lessons: The Pedagogy of Imperialism in Nineteenth-Century China. (Durham: Duke University Press, 2003).

Xiang, L. The Origins of the Boxer War: A Multinational Study (New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003).


Landor, A. Henry Savage. China and the Allies, two volumes (New York: Scribners, 1901). Read the full book online.

View the nianhua pictures in the National Archives Catalog.
Click here.

Visual Cultures in East Asia
VCEA is the new generic platform of the Institute of Asian Studies (IrAsia) for the development and display of research projects and collections that involve the use of visual and cartographic materials. Click here.


1. Tan, Chester C. “The Boxer Catastrophe,” Columbia Studies in the Social Sciences, No. 583, p.60 (New York: Columbia University Press).

2. “The Progress of the World,” The American Monthly Review of Reviews, vol. 22. Albert Shaw, editor (New York: The Review of Reviews Co., 1900). Read the full text in the HathiTrust Digital Library.;view=1up;seq=161

3. Tan, p.73


“The Boxer Uprising ll” was developed by Visualizing Cultures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in collaboration with Peter C. Perdue and Ellen Sebring (co-authors, essay) and presented on MIT OpenCourseWare.

MIT Visualizing Cultures:

John W. Dower
Project Director
Emeritus Professor of History

Shigeru Miyagawa
Project Director
Professor of Linguistics
Kochi Prefecture-John Manjiro Professor of Japanese Language and Culture

Ellen Sebring
Creative Director
Co-author, essay

Scott Shunk
Program Director

Andrew Burstein
Media Designer

In collaboration with:

Peter C. Perdue
Department of History
Yale University

Co-author, essay


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